Drones Most Common Terms

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4CH: 4 channel==> 6CH= 6channel
AGL: Above Ground Level
Aircraft*. Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
Autonomous aircraft. An unmanned aircraft that does not allow pilot intervention in the management of the flight.
Autonomous operation. An operation during which a remotely-piloted aircraft is operating without pilot intervention in the management of the flight.
Channel: In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel or channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.
Closed loops – This type incorporates sensor feedback to adjust behavior (reduce speed to reflect tailwind, move to altitude 300 feet).
Command and control link. The data link between the remotely-piloted aircraft and the remote pilot station for the purposes of managing the flight.
Commercial operation. An aircraft operation conducted for business purposes (mapping, security surveillance, wildlife survey, aerial application, etc.) other than commercial air transport, for remuneration or hire.
Compass – A compass sensor is used to detect the direction and accurately correct motion.
Crew member*. A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during a flight duty period.
Detect and avoid. The capability to see, sense or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action to comply with the applicable rules of flight.
EDF:Electric Ducted Fan.
ESC: An electronic speed control is an electronic circuit with the purpose to vary an electric motor’s speed.
Examples of ex- proprioceptive monitoring devices are panning sonar sensors and force sensors.
Exproprioceptive: sensors use a combination of proprioceptive and exteroceptive monitoring. These sensors measure the position of the robot body or parts relative to the environment. Exproprioceptive measuring is characterized by the use of directional sensors whose direction relative to the robot is not fixed. It also includes relative readings such as measuring the internal heat of a robot versus the external heat.
Exteroceptive sensors:  determine the measurements of objects relative to a robot’s frame of reference. These sensors are categorized as proximity sensors. Proximity sensors enable a robot to tell when it is near an object. These sensors keep the robot from colliding with other objects. They can also be used to measure the distance from the robot to another object. (eg. Contact Sensors (tactile sensors), Range Sensors, Vision Sensors )
Finite-state machine: (FSM) or finite state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits.
Flight crew member*. A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight duty period.
Flight recorder**. Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation. In the case of remotely-piloted aircraft, it also includes any type of recorder installed in a remote pilot station for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation.
Flight time — aeroplanes*. The total time from the moment an aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight
Flight time — helicopters*. The total time from the moment a helicopter’s rotor blades start turning until the moment the helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped.
Flying pilot. A person who operates the flying controls of an aircraft and is responsible for the flight trajectory of the aircraft.
Follow me: a mode that configured to instruct the drone to follow something
Global Positioning System (GPS) – The drawbacks of GPS sensors include a slow refresh rate and sensitivity to blackouts
Gyro: An abbreviation for the gyroscope, an orientation-stabilizing device.
Handover. The act of passing piloting control from one remote pilot station to another.
Hierarchical control system: It is a form of control system in which a set of devices and governing software is arranged in a hierarchical tree
Inclinometer – An inclinometer sensor measures the tilt or angle of an axis.
Inertial Navigation System (INS) – The drawbacks of INS include the tendency to drift over time and with temperature.
Instrument flight time*. Time during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference to instruments and without external reference points.
Loop principles: UAVs employ open-loop, closed-loop or hybrid control architectures
Lost link. The loss of command and control link contact with the remotely-piloted aircraft such that the remote pilot can no longer manage the aircraft’s flight.
MAVs: mini-micro UAVs
Open loop— it provides a positive control signal (faster, slower, left, right, up, down) without incorporating feedback from sensor data.
Operational control*. The exercise of authority over the initiation, continuation, diversion or termination of a flight in the interest of safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight.
Operator*. A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in an aircraft operation
PID: parameters adjustment of a proportional-integral-derivative
Pilot (to)*. To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight time.
Pilot-in-command*. The pilot designated by the operator, or in the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.
PNP: Plug and Play: Requires no physical device configuration.
Proprioceptive sensors: These sensors are responsible for monitoring self-maintenance and controlling internal status. Common uses of proprioceptive measurements are for battery monitoring, current sensing, and heat monitoring.(eg. Global Positioning System (GPS),Inertial Navigation System (INS),Shaft Encoders, Compass and Inclinometer )(https://www.robots.com/education/proprioceptive-sensors)
Radio line-of-sight. A direct electronic point-to-point contact between a transmitter and a receiver.
RC: Radio control
Remote crew member. A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of a remotely-piloted aircraft, during flight time.
Remote pilot station. The station at which the remote pilot manages the flight of an unmanned aircraft.
Remote pilot. The person who manipulates the flight controls of a remotely-piloted aircraft during flight time.
Remotely-piloted aircraft system. A set of configurable elements consisting of a remotely-piloted aircraft, its associated remote pilot station(s), the required command and control links and any other system elements as may be required, at any point during flight operation.
Remotely-piloted aircraft. An aircraft where the flying pilot is not on board the aircraft. Note.— This is a subcategory of unmanned aircraft.
Remotely-piloted. Control of an aircraft from a pilot station which is not on board the aircraft.
RPA observer. A remote crew member who, by visual observation of the remotely-piloted aircraft, assists the remote pilot in the safe conduct of the flight.
RX/TX control test: You talk to the transmitter (TX), Transmitter talks to the receiver (RX)
Segregated airspace. Airspace of specified dimensions allocated for exclusive use to a specific user(s).
Shaft Encoders – A shaft encoder, also known as a rotary encoder, is an electromagnetic device that works as a transducer to convert the angular position of a shaft or axle to an analog or digital code.
The degree of Freedom (DOF): It is the number of independent parameters that define its configuration. The term is widely used to define the motion capabilities of a robot(eg: yaw, pitch, roll, up, down, left, right, back, forth…)
Unmanned aircraft system. An aircraft and its associated elements which are operated with no pilot on board.
Unmanned aircraft. An aircraft which is intended to operate with no pilot on board.
Visual line-of-sight operation. An operation in which the remote crew maintains direct visual contact with the aircraft to manage its flight and meet separation and collision avoidance responsibilities.
Waypoints:some drones have features for a pre-planned navigation, the pre-Planned points and destinations used to limit our area to be covered in the survey/navigation are called waypoints.
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